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Explain self-efficacy as it relates to behavior change. Give an example of it with

Regards to adopting a fitness program

It refers to person self -believe in doing or executing a particular activity. They are perceptions concerning their competence. This belief determines one perception and expectations of one’s behavior. It is not easy to start a health program or a fitness program, for example reducing weight, body fats and big tummy for overweight men and women. For one to engage in a successful fitness program self-efficacy is very vital since its starting something you are not used to, and you have to (Becker, 1974).

About the Health Belief Model define perceived susceptibility and perceived severity. Describe the role of each in this model; you may use an applicable example if you like to sacrifice a lot to achieve the set goals.

Health Believe Model was developed by a social psychologist in 1950. It can predict health behavior regarding health services.

Perceived susceptibility is one’s opinion of counted chances to get a particular condition. It is assessment of risks associated in various health conditions. While perceived severity refers to one opinion of a severe condition and the consequences, it calls for critically analyzing the severity and consequences (Becker, 1974).  People who perceive a particular health problem to be fatal and life threatening will engage health behaviors that will prevent the particular condition. For example, someone who perceives too much sugar and fats can cause weight challenge.

Individuals who believe they are susceptible to health challenges may acknowledge the risk of contracting that condition while others will not. The combination of perceived susceptibility and perceived severity is referred to as perceived threat. The health belief model perceived threats may lead to engagement of health lifestyles. This model to develop interventions to curb health- related behaviors model can be used to address health fitness programs such as an exercise, diet modification, smoking, drug abuse and gambling.

What is a construct? List and describe the constructs of the Transtheoretical


Construct refers to an idea or concept created to guide a particular theory such as health behavior model theory. It helps the health instructors in gyms, hospitals, and fitness center to choose the theory, which will give him or her insights on how to address client’s needs.

The transtheoretical theory explains how a person makes a decision and takes action towards a particular issue. In addition, it shows how that particular action and decision are translated into action.

The following are the constructs of the theory;


It is analyzing the effects of a certain behavior, and its consequences in one’s life


It is taking action to come up with steps to address a particular negative health behavior.


It is the next plan of action one takes after contemplating


In case one has been adhering to the treatment, ones explore different ways of maintaining that good behavior.

Concerning the Social Cognitive Theory, describe the 3 types of reinforcement.

Also, explain the difference between expectations and expectancies

Social cognitive theory addresses individual client behaviors. It entails individual behavior and expected output. There are efficacy expectations and expected outcomes. Reinforcement is applied to enable the individual learn how to change behavior. In addition, any reinforcement geared toward one’s behavior determines one reaction and attitude execute their activity. The efficacy expectations show one strong belief while outcome expectation are results of one’s behavior (Becker, 1974).

The following are various reinforcements. They include;

Positive reinforcement

It is doing something that will make you feel well after the exercise for example getting an accountable partner to monitor your diet modification.

Negative reinforcement

 This is doing an act that will leave you feeling demoralized, low self -esteem, discouraged.

Positive punishment

It made you feel reluctant and became reactive to issues.

Negative punishments

             Takes away positive things, for example, waking up early, doing assignments on time, gym time. You will find you are no longer doing them.

Why is it important to use theories when planning and evaluating health promotion


Theories provide the conceptual framework, which forms the basis of need interventions. The theories and the models play a vital role in informing the health programmers in researching the cause of a particular behavior (Becker, 1974).

It helps us to understand how to live a healthy lifestyle. Theories such as Health Belief model theory explains how perceived susceptibility and perceived severity help individuals to take action in disease prevention and altitude towards unhealthy behavior.

To gather information need to guide the development of the of health fitness program. Health program managers need a lot of information to develop the treatment for their clients. The theories offer rich information, explains the cause and effect of various health behaviors.

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